Chinese Information Warfare: A Phantom Menace or Emerging Threat?


1.    James Adams, “Virtual Defense,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 80, No. 3, May/June 2001, pp. 100-101.

2.    The Joint Staff, Enabling the Joint Vision, Washington, DC: The U.S. Department of Defense, May 2000; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,  Information Operations: A Strategy for Peace . . . The Decisive Edge in War, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, March 1999, p. 3.

3.    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Vision 2020, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, June 2000, p. 28.

4.    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Vision 2010, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, July 1997, p. 16.

5.    Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence, Information Superiority: Making the Joint Vision Happen, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, 2000, p. 5.

6.    Information Operations, pp. 10-11.

7.    Kate Farris, “Chinese Views of Information Warfare,” Defense Intelligence Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, Winter 2001, p. 38.

8.    Ibid., p. 37.

9.    Michael Pillsbury, China Debates the Future Security Environment, Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 2000, pp. 3-61. Sponsored by Andrew Marshall’s Office of Net Assessment, this landmark study is a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of over 200 Chinese writings published from 1994-99. The Chinese authors are mostly from prestigious government-funded research institutes.

10.  Kenneth F. McKenzie, Jr., The Revenge of the Melians: Asymmetric Threats and the Next QDR, Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 2000) 1-2.

11.  Pillsbury, China Debates, p. 286.

12.  June Teufel Dreyer, The PLA and The Kosovo Conflict, Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2000, pp. 12-15.

13.  Bruce D. Berkowitz and Allan E. Goodman, Best Truth: Intelligence in the Information Age, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000, pp. 14-15.

14.  Martin Van Creveld, Command in War, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985, p. 4.

15.  Ibid., p. 5.

16. Liu Huaqing, “Unswervingly March Along the Road of Building a Modern Army With Chinese Characteristics,” Jiefangjun Bao, August 6, 1993, in FBIS-CHI, November 20, 1996.

17. Wang Baocun, “Information Warfare in the Kosovo Conflict,” Jiefangjun Bao, May 25, 1999, in FBIS-CHI, June 23, 1999; and Yao Yunzhu, “Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Crisis Shows Need to Strengthen PLA: Discussion of the Kosovo Crisis Among Experts and Scholars,” Jiefangjun Bao, April 13, 1999, in FBIS-CHI, April 28, 1999.

18. James Mulvenon, “The PLA and Information Warfare,” in The People’s Liberation Army in the Information Age, James Mulvenon and Richard H. Yang, eds., Washington, DC: RAND, 1999, p. 178.

19. Pillsbury, China Debates, p. 264.

20. Ibid., p. 286.

21. Ch’en Huan, “The Third Military Revolution,” in Chinese Views of Future Warfare, Michael Pillsbury, ed., Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1997, p. 389.

22. Hai Lung and Chang Feng, “Chinese Military Studies Information Warfare, Kuang Chiao Ching, January 16, 1996, in FBIS-CHI, February 21, 1996, pp. 33-34.

23. You Ji, “The Revolution in Military Affairs and the Evolution of China’s Strategic Thinking,” Contemporary Southeast Asia, No. 21, December 1999, p. 351.

24. Michael Pillsbury, “Chinese Views of Future Warfare,” in China’s Military Faces the Future, James R. Lilley and David Shambaugh, eds., Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1999, p. 69.

25. John Arquilla and Solomon M. Karmel, “Welcome to the Revolution . . . in Chinese Military Affairs,” Defense Analysis, Vol. 13, No. 3, December 1997, p. 259.

26. Wang Baocun and Li Fei, “Information Warfare,” in Chinese Views of Future Warfare, Michael Pillsbury, ed., Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1997, p. 328.

27. Mulvenon, p. 180.

28. According to Joint Vision 2010, information superiority is defined as: “the capability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same.”

29. Huang Youfu, Zhang Bibo, and Zhang Song, “New Subjects of Study Brought About by Information Warfare,” Jiefangjun Bao, November 11, 1997, in FBIS-CHI, December 20, 1997, p. 3.

30. Ibid.

31. Shen Weiguang, “Checking Information Warfare—Epoch Mission of Intellectual Military,” Jiefangjun Bao, February 2, 1999, in FBIS-CHI, February 15, 1999, p. 5.

32. Ibid.

33. “Where Should Attention be Focused in Preparing for Military Struggle,” Jiefangjun Bao, July 25, 2000, in FBIS-CHI, July 25, 2000, p. 3.

34. Chang Mengxiong, “Information Intensified—A Mark of 21st Century Weapons and Military Units,” Guoji Hangkong, March 5, 1995, in FBIS-CHI, March 5 1995, p. 5.

35. Chong-Pin Lin, “Info Warfare Latecomer,” Defense News, April 12, 1999, p. 23.

36. In the United States, the National Defense University (NDU), the service schools, and the command and staff colleges all teach the Art of War as a part of the core curriculum. See NDU course description of Fundamentals of Military Thought and Strategy at Recently, the Institute for National Strategic Studies at NDU dedicated its 1997-98 annual writing competition on information warfare to Sun Tzu. See introduction to the research competition at

37. Wang Pufeng, “The Challenge of Information Warfare,” in Chinese Views of Future Warfare, Michael Pillsbury, ed., Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1997, pp. 322-323.

38. Yuan Bangen, “Setting Eyes on Development, Stepping Up Research in Information Warfare Theories and Construction of Digital Forces and Digital Battlefields,” Zhongguo Junshi Kexue, February 20, 1999, in FBIS-CHI, July 6, 1999, p. 4.

39. Wang Baocun and Li Fei, p. 320

40. Xie Guang, “Year-end Report: Wars Under High-Tech,” Renmin Ribao, December 27, 1997, in FBIS-CHI, January 30, 2000, p. 2.

41. Wang Baocun and Li Fei, p. 332.

42. Wang Baocun, “A Preliminary Analysis of Information Warfare,” Zhongguo Junshi Kexue, November 11, 1997, in FBIS-CHI, March 29, 1998, p. 3.

43. Major General Dai Qingmin, “Innovating and Developing Views on Information Operations,” Zhongguo Junshi Kexue, August 20, 2000, in FBIS-CHI, September 11, 2000, p. 10.

44. Zeng Sunan and Zhu Xiaoning, “Virtual Reality: An Important Medium in Theoretical Innovation,” Jiefangjun Bao, May 16, 2000, in FBIS-CHI, May 16, 2000.

45. Xu Hezhen, “Focus on Psychological War Under the Background of Larger Military Strategy,” Zhongguo Junshi Kexue, October 20, 2000, in FBIS-CHI, December 11, 2000, p. 11.