Shariah’s Black Box

[141] For a discussion of the broad sweep of state consumer fraud statutes, see Victor E. Schwartz & Cary Silverman, Common-Sense Construction of Consumer Protection Acts, 54 Kan. L. Rev. 1 (2005).

[142] The law, known as the Unfair Competition Law (“UCL”), is codified at Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code §§ 17200-17210 (Deering 2007).

[143] Supra note 126. The UCL recently was amended by Proposition 64 to eliminate the right of private plaintiffs to sue as “private attorneys general” without a showing of injury. See Schwartz & Silverman, supra note 141, at 34-37.

[144] David Monsma & John Buckley, Eighteenth Annual Corporate Law Symposium: Corporate Social Responsibility In The International Context: Is There An Emerging Fiduciary Duty To Consider Human Rights?, 74 U. Cin. L. Rev. 75 (2005).

[145] For Pennsylvania, see Denison v. Kelly, 759 F. Supp. 199, 202 (D. Pa. 1991) (referencing 73 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 201-1-202-9.3 (2007)).  For Illinois, see Onesti v. Thomson McKinnon Secur., Inc., 619 F. Supp. 1262, 1267 (D. Ill. 1985) (referencing Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 121 1/2, § 262, et seq. (1985), now 815 Ill. Comp. Stat. 505/2 (2007)).  For Arizona, see State ex rel. Corbin v. Pickrell, 136Ariz. 589, 592 (Ariz. 1983) (referencing Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 44-1522 – 1531 (2007)).

[146] 15 U.S.C § 1125 (2006).

[147] 15 U.S.C. §§ 1601-1693r.

[148] 15 U.S.C. app. 12 CFR § 226.

[149] Pub. L. No. 103-325, 108 Stat. 2190 (codified as amended in scattered sections of 15 U.S.C.).

[150] Loss & Seligman, supra note 10, at 1205 (defense of reasonable care under Section 12(a)(2) of the 1933 Act); id. at 1227-1239 (reasonable care and “expertizing” defenses under Section 11 of the 1933 Act).